November 11 is a day to celebrate and honor the millions of Americans, of all races and genders, who served this country with honor as veterans of the US military – today is Veterans Day! It is time to recognize the veterans who are living with the “signature wound” of more recent wars: traumatic brain injury and often the co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder. These men and women fight on the battlefield for the citizens of the United States and now fight for their health and/or equality back at home. (Visit the articles links or click the Government/Military link on the right side of this page to find more information about veterans and TBI.)
The Associated Press has released audio of mysterious sounds that some US diplomats and their families , as well as Canadian diplomats and families, were unknowingly subjected to in Cuba before suffering a variety of neurological problems, reports various sources. “Some can no longer remember words, while others have hearing loss, speech problems, balance issues, nervous-system damage, headaches, ringing in the ears, and nausea. Some have shown signs of brain swelling or concussions — mild traumatic brain injuries.” News in North America since last year, it wasn’t until a few weeks ago that the US State Department determined that it was most likely that these problems were “specific attacks”. (Most likely from the Cuban government, but environmental issues or simply human error could cause such problems, too.) Though it is known that audible attacks can be a weapon, the exact weapon used in this instance is still not known or understood.
There have been some studies showing that sound can cause brain injuries. A study conducted by the University of Texas in 2014, for example, showed that, “prolonged exposure to loud noise alters how the brain processes speech, potentially increasing the difficulty in distinguishing speech sounds.” Such a conclusion goes way beyond the general thought that prolonged exposure to loud noise results in hearing loss. Additionally, there already words to describe some of the problems people have with sound. Misophonia, literally “hatred of sound”, was proposed in 2000 as a condition in which negative emotions, thoughts, and physical reactions are triggered by specific sounds. The more likely culprit is hyperacusis, a “debilitating hearing disorder characterized by an increased sensitivity to certain frequencies and volume ranges of sound (a collapsed tolerance to usual environmental sound).” Causes of hyperacusis include, but are not limited to, post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.
However, the United States government is not wholly confident that sound caused these brain injuries. Since there is very little way to determine if such sound came at the direction of the Cuban government or by it, it is important not to draw final conclusions. Still, the United States has severely shrunk its embassy staff in Cuba. Earlier this month, President Trump expelled 15 Cuban diplomats from the United States. Additionally, since September 29, 2017, “The Department of State warns U.S. citizens not to travel to Cuba.”
“With a better understanding [of] how traumatic brain injuries occur, a Brown-led research team hopes to develop new standards for head protection and next-generation helmets,” reads a news story from Brown University. In July, the Office of Naval Research granted the university $4.75 million to study brain injury, specifically as it relates to helmet use in the military and in athletics.
Currently, helmets must essentially follow standards that were set in the late 1970’s (there have been changes in sizing since that time), with the technology that was available 40 years ago when computers were still an anomaly. “[Brown University associate professor Christian Frank’s lab] has developed a novel technique for measuring for effects of traumatic forces on individual neurons… a custom-built device that can apply compressive forces to neurons inside three-dimensional cell cultures [not a 2D petri dish, as is presently used].” With these updated and more stringent standards, Brown University and their associates hope to first develop a helmet that can gather all the data about the brain during the action that resulted in its injury. Ultimately, because they are now learning about the effects of injury on a cellular level, researchers hope to develop a helmet prototype to completely prevent such injuries.
Last year, I noted how July 4th can be traumatizing for some of those with a brain injury. This year, I want to recognize that some towns do support those who suffer from it. In Mississippi, a celebration at Old Trace Park in Ridgeland County holds an event that is partially sponsored by the Brain Injury Association of Mississippi. In Iowa, Brett Greenwood, the former defensive back for the University of Iowa Hawkeyes who suffered a brain injury in 2011, will be serving as Grand Marshall of the Bettondorf parade. (“The goal is for Greenwood to walk on his own,” says his former Iowa football teammate Pat Angerer.) As for prevention, the Tucson News Now provided advice on how to ensure the health of pet’s brains amid the summer heat of July 4th celebrations.
The Huffington Post notes the ongoing trauma for some troops, specifically noting the trauma suffered by some of the veterans of the Vietnam War. On this blog, the article, Patriotic Day Can Traumatize America’s Patriots, also recognizes this trauma.
Located in San Diego, CA, Camp Pendleton proclaims to be, “The West Coast’s Premier Expeditionary [Marines] Training Base.” Last Tuesday, May 9, they broke ground on a $12 million, 25,000 square foot facility that aims to make the Camp a premier brain injury research and treatment center, too. The funding needed to build the facility was raised through private donations and the funding of Arnold Fisher, a New York-based real estate tycoon. Fisher says that he sees helping the troops as his duty as an American.
Part of the Department of Defense organization National Intrepid Center of Excellence (NICoE), which is headquartered in Maryland, the Camp Pendleton facility will be the seventh of nine planned NICoE facilities focused on brain injury and the first on the West Coast. Presently, NICoE has erected facilities in Fort Belvoir, Virginia, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, Fort Campbell, Kentucky, Fort Hood, Texas, and Fort Bragg, North Carolina. A center at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington, is still under construction and facilities are still to be built in Fort Carson, Colorado and Fort Blass, Texas.
Beyond Marine training, the Camp defines part of its vision to be, “providing superior service and support.” Therefore, they also deal with the injuries that may come as a result of a brain injury or come in conjunction with it – specifically, physical and behavioral problems. In fact, Camp Pendleton has been training and supporting the troops for 75 years.
So far, NICoE facilities have about a 90% rate for patients to return to duty. Still, as Capt. Lisa Mulligan, commanding officer at the Camp Pendleton hospital, says, “Science as a whole remains in the infancy of its understanding of the potential for recovery after head injury. This center will combine the resources of clinical, research and educational specialists to broaden our horizons.”
Neurological injury is a significant health concern for military service members, recognizes the Department of Defense. Last year, for example, 17,672 service members were diagnosed with a brain injury. While the military may not be able to eliminate neurological injuries entirely, the DoD has granted $11.3 million to Abbott Laboratories for the development of a mobile device that allows one to determine if they have a traumatic brain injury, anytime and anyplace. Interestingly, this product only relies on such things as the proteins in the blood to find brain injuries. It will be developed in Princeton, New Jersey, with the assistance of the U.S. Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity in Frederick, Maryland, and has an estimated completion date of October 23, 2019. (In 2014, the DoD awarded Abbott $19.5 million to develop a portable blood test to determine brain injury. However, even then, Abbott said that the product being developed was, “the first phase of what… would be a multi-phased contract.”)
Drones are on their way to becoming the preferred method of retail delivery and much more. Currently, however, the air technology can only be used in a few limited locations. Before they become ubiquitous, though, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) must assure that this way of delivery, that may weigh 50+ pounds, is safe for humans. (Not just for airplane safety, the FAA is responsible for the safety of U.S. airspace from the ground up.) Given their weight and their height of flight, head safety related to drones is of particular concern.
This has already been an issue this year. On February 24, 2017, for example, a Seattle man was sentenced to a $500 fine and 30-days in jail because his drone hit a woman, causing her to lose consciousness. However, current news also shows that drones can prove a benefit to those with a head injury. In St. Louis, Minnesota the sheriff’s office is testing drones so, ultimately, they, “can look for missing persons, or a child, or maybe someone [who] was injured in an accident and sustained a head injury and wandered off.”
Federal-sponsored drone tests are also revealing. At a government-approved test center at Virginia Tech, a drone is being tested again a crash-test dummy. In testing, “the 21-pound drone tilted forward, accelerated sharply and slammed into [the drone’s] head, smacking the crash-test dummy’s neck backward and embedding shards of shattered propeller in his plastic face.” Mark Black, director of the Virginia Tech drone test, asks, “When does the [head injury] threshold cross an unacceptable level?”
Although it is horrible to think of a head injury threshold, the Federal Aviation Administration knows that it can never make drones perfectly safe, just as airplanes will never be one hundred percent safe. However, does the proposed FAA rule saying that, “Drones would have to fly 20 feet above people’s heads, and have a 10-foot buffer space on all sides,” satisfy the safety rules enough?
Update: Yesterday, an article appeared on the Fortune website regarding the safety of drones. Specifically, it references and links to a research study conducted by the FAA that was released on Friday, April 28. Generally, the research shows that, “both steel debris and the wood block caused significantly more damage to the dummy than the drone, which absorb much of the impact because it’s made of more flexible materials.”
For seven years, there have been high hopes and expectations that Waco, Texas would be host to a world-class VA research facility. Consolidating the Austin-based Brain Injury Recovery Laboratory and Waco’s Center of Excellence into one facility, it was thought that, 1 “this program consolidation will enable [the] VA to meet its mission of better understanding brain injuries…” Waco is right next to Fort Hood, so the high hopes seemed in tune with location reality. Right before it opened, then-Rep. Chet Edwards (D-Waco) lauded it as, “one of the few programs in the country focused on the links between genes and brain anatomy in the development of PTSD and mental illness in our combat soldiers.” The Center even had many designated areas of the building devoted to the study of TBI and PTSD. However, after all the excitement of the opening of the facility ended, it seems that much of the research activity in it essentially did too.
Perhaps it was all of these high hopes, coupled with the new, expensive equipment, that led to the program’s perceived failure. In 2014, “a 10-month [local newspaper] investigation… found that the VA squandered millions of dollars and six years of research opportunity just as brain injuries were spiking among U.S. service members.” (Of particular note was the finding that a MRI scanner that was purchased in 2008 for $3.6 million, had since stayed dormant.) This investigation was noticed by Congress, who started an investigation of their own, launched by Rep. Bill Flores (R-Waco).
Last week, the VA debuted a new, expanded state-of-the-art research facility in Waco, Texas. (This is very similar to the nomenclature that was used in 2009 for the facility’s original launch and, in fact, this new facility was originally planned to open in 2011.) Housed in the Doris Miller Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, the VISN 17 Center of Excellence for Research on Returning War Veterans, as it’s known, employs 70 people from around the country. These people must then find residence in Waco. Waco Mayor Kyle Deaver says that, “attracting these well-paid professionals to Waco will ripple through the local economy,” which is an unexpected benefit of the Center. Currently, a number of studies have already been planned, including Project Serve, SHE Study, the Moral Injury Project and treatment of traumatic brain injury using EEG neurofeedback.
“The White House expressed support for brain injury advocates attending the Congressional Brain Injury Task Force’s (CBITF) Brain Injury Awareness Day on Capitol Hill on Wednesday, March 22.” To accompany the day, President Trump penned a letter to everyone who participated in the event. An overview of the letter shows that it largely is a list of facts about brain injury that is available to the public already. However, there is no letter from an earlier president to compare it with, as the Congressional Brain Injury Task Force was only created in 2012. (The only letter from President Obama that I can find is a letter applauding the creation of the Task Force.)
An overview of the letter, though, also shows that it is comprised of a ten-line paragraph focused on those who suffer a brain injury while serving in the military. While I am definitely not dismissing those who suffer a brain injury while on the call of duty, the following paragraph that focuses on civilians with brain injury is only five sentences. As for statistics, the Center of Disease Control estimates that 1.7 million Americans sustain a brain injury each year . The Department of Defense estimates that about 17,500 soldiers suffered a brain injury last year. Unfortunately, that means that the percentage of soldiers who are afflicted by a brain injury is much higher; however, the number of civilian Americans who suffer from brain injuries is still a higher number and much more present. The focus on the military makes sense for Trump though, as military is one of the chief priorities of the Trump Presidency.
I am not sure what would have made this acknowledgement letter something that the brain injury community and all concerned Americans satisfied and, in fact, there is no singular answer to that. Even if you disagree with the exact wording of the letter, the fact that the President is recognizing that brain injury is a very important and serious issue in America is a definite positive.
Veterans are provided with certain benefits from the country, as recognition for their time in service. In 2000, the National Family Caregiver Support Program was created to provide, “grants to State and Territories… to fund a range of supports that assist family and informal caregivers to care for their loved ones at home for as long as possible.” Though this program was initially directed towards, “adult family members of other [adult] informal caregivers… providing care to individual 60 years of age and older; adult family members or other [adult] informal caregivers… providing care to individuals of any age with Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders; grandparents and other relatives (not parents) 55 years of age and older providing care to children under the age of 18; and grandparents and other relatives (not parent) 55 years of age and older providing care to adults… with disabilities,” given how much they have given to this country, in 2010, the Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act , Public Law No. 111-163, was enacted nationally. Public Law No.111-163 allows those who support veterans to apply for these benefits. (This bill was sponsored by Sen. Akaka (D-HI) and cosponsored in a non-partisan way.)
Because this program relies on the state to determine who should be granted these benefits and how much this grant should be, based on the cost of living and the cost of medical care in the state, it is the states’ responsibility to keep the program running. Recently, the Oregon VA decided to stop giving benefits to the caregivers of some veterans; 207 have been removed from the program, while 57 veterans are still participating. However, on April 10, 2017, The Oregonian reported, “Portland VA to temporarily stop removing vets from caregiver program”. Six members of Congressmen, all of whom happen to be Democrats, Rep. Kurt Schrader, Sen. Ron Wyden, Sen. Jeff Markley, Rep. Suzanne Bonamici, Rep. Earl Blumenauer and Rep. Peter DeFazio, put a stop to the stop. (Though he did not participate in the halt of the stop, Republican Rep. Greg Walden of Oregon says he supports it.)
Though not yet enacted, the stop that some Oregon congressmen are trying to make is not unique to the state. As of February 2016, thousands of veterans in Washington and Idaho had already been removed from the program. However, as the title of these articles state, “Veterans’ caregivers lose VA stipends, struggle to understand why.” The government says that the stipends given through this program were never meant to be permanent. However, I can find no information in the text of the law that either confirms or negates this. For many veterans with certain disabilities, such as some with TBI or PTSD, employment is simply not a possibility. In fact, these articles profile specific veterans, with TBI and PTSD, for whom full recovery has not yet, and may never be, a medically-reasonable possibility.