The Associated Press has released audio of mysterious sounds that some US diplomats and their families , as well as Canadian diplomats and families, were unknowingly subjected to in Cuba before suffering a variety of neurological problems, reports various sources. “Some can no longer remember words, while others have hearing loss, speech problems, balance issues, nervous-system damage, headaches, ringing in the ears, and nausea. Some have shown signs of brain swelling or concussions — mild traumatic brain injuries.” News in North America since last year, it wasn’t until a few weeks ago that the US State Department determined that it was most likely that these problems were “specific attacks”. (Most likely from the Cuban government, but environmental issues or simply human error could cause such problems, too.) Though it is known that audible attacks can be a weapon, the exact weapon used in this instance is still not known or understood.
There have been some studies showing that sound can cause brain injuries. A study conducted by the University of Texas in 2014, for example, showed that, “prolonged exposure to loud noise alters how the brain processes speech, potentially increasing the difficulty in distinguishing speech sounds.” Such a conclusion goes way beyond the general thought that prolonged exposure to loud noise results in hearing loss. Additionally, there are already words to describe some of the problems people have with sound. Misophonia, literally “hatred of sound”, was proposed in 2000 as a condition in which negative emotions, thoughts, and physical reactions are triggered by specific sounds. The more likely culprit is hyperacusis, a “debilitating hearing disorder characterized by an increased sensitivity to certain frequencies and volume ranges of sound (a collapsed tolerance to usual environmental sound).” Causes of hyperacusis include, but are not limited to, post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.
However, the United States government is not wholly confident that sound caused these brain injuries. Since there is very little way to determine if such sound came at the direction of the Cuban government or by it, it is important not to draw final conclusions. Still, the United States has severely shrunk its embassy staff in Cuba. Earlier this month, President Trump expelled 15 Cuban diplomats from the United States. Additionally, since September 29, 2017, “The Department of State warns U.S. citizens not to travel to Cuba.”